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Giuseppe Garibaldi

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Giuseppe Maria Garibaldi ( GARR-ib-AWL-dee, Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi] (listen); 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy’s “fathers of the fatherland” along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi is also known as the “Hero of the Two Worlds” because of his military enterprises in South America and Europe.Garibaldi supported the aims of Giuseppe Mazzini’s political movement Young Italy and became a life-long supporter of Italian unification under a democratic Republican government. After participating in an uprising in Piedmont, he was sentenced to death and he escaped by sailing to South America; he spent fourteen years in exile, taking part in several wars and learning the art of guerrilla warfare.
In 1835, in Brazil, he took up the cause of the Riograndense Republic in its attempt to proclaim another republic within Santa Catarina, joining the rebels known as the Ragamuffins. Garibaldi also became involved in the Uruguayan Civil War, raising an Italian force known as Redshirts, and is today celebrated as an important contributor towards the independence of the country.
In 1848, he returned to Italy and commanded and fought in many military campaigns that eventually led to the Italian unification. The provisional government of Milan made Garibaldi a general, and in 1849, the Minister of War promoted him to General of the Roman Republic. When the war of independence broke out in April 1859, he led his Hunters of the Alps in the capture of Varese and Como and reached the frontier of South Tyrol; the war ended with the acquisition of Lombardy. The following year, he led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. The expedition was a success and concluded with the annexation of Sicily, Southern Italy, Marche and Umbria to the Kingdom of Sardinia, before the creation of a unified Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War, as commander of the Army of the Vosges.
Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time, and became an international figure synonymous with promoting national independence and republican ideals. He was showered with admiration and praises by many great intellectuals and political figures, such as Abraham Lincoln, William Brown, Francesco de Sanctis, Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, George Sand, Charles Dickens, Friedrich Engels, and Che Guevara. Historian A. J. P. Taylor called him “the only wholly admirable figure in modern history”. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts that his volunteers, the Garibaldini, wore in lieu of a uniform.