James Dalton Trumbo (December 9, 1905 – September 10, 1976) was an American screenwriter and novelist who scripted many award-winning films including Roman Holiday, Exodus, Spartacus, and Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo. One of the Hollywood Ten, he refused to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1947 during the committee’s investigation of Communist influences in the motion picture industry. He, along with the other members of the Hollywood Ten, and hundreds of other industry professionals were subsequently blacklisted by that industry.
His sheer talent as a screenwriter enabled him to continue working clandestinely on top films, writing under other authors’ names or pseudonyms. His uncredited work won two Academy Awards for Best Story: for Roman Holiday (1953), which was given to a front writer, and for The Brave One (1956) which was awarded to a pseudonym of Trumbo’s. When he was given public screen credit for both Exodus and Spartacus in 1960, this marked the beginning of the end of the Hollywood Blacklist for Trumbo and other screenwriters. He finally was given full credit by the Writers’ Guild for all his achievements, the work of which encompassed six decades of screenwriting.